What is the 3R principle?

The 3R principle - Replace, Reduce, Refine - was introduced to science in 1959 by a book entitled "The principles of humane experimental technique" by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. Various definitions of the terms exist by now. However, in general "Replace" refers to the replacement of animal experiments, "Reduce" to the reduction of the number of animals used in an experiment, and "Refine" to an improvement of the housing and experimental conditions for the animals.



  • Panel Discussion 10.10.2022 | Can animal experiments be ethically justified?

    The Einstein Center 3R invites you to the panel discussion on October 10, 2022 at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities and via live stream. The event will be held in German.


  • Publication | Human alveolar progenitors generate dual lineage bronchioalveolar organoids

    An exciting new study from Charité and LMU shows plasticity of the human lung, and a potential to control differentiation.

  • Call | Outgoing Lab Visits 2023

    In 2023, the Einstein Center 3R offers PhD students and postdocs the opportunity to visit 3R laboratories of excellence to learn about innovative technologies and applications of 3R. Deadline 26.10.2022.


  • Save the Date | 3R Online Seminar: "Alternatives to animal use in research and education - Refine, Reduce & Replace"

    Within a period of eight weeks, seventeen excellent scientists will give a wide-ranging overview of the broad spectrum of topics in the field of the 3Rs. Starts on October 20th, 2022.

  • Call | EC3R national and international outgoing lab visit program

    Travel reimbursements of up to € 3.000 will be provided to enable Berlin graduates to visit national and international 3R laboratories of excellence.

Funded by the Einstein Foundation Berlin

The Einstein Foundation was established by the State of Berlin in 2009. The foundation's goal is to promote science and research in Berlin at the highest international level and to further Berlin as an attractive location for science and research in the long term. In addition to the income from the foundation's capital, the foundation also has access to funds from the state of Berlin. Funding projects are selected by an independent scientific commission of high-caliber experts.