The 3R principle - Replace, Reduce, Refine - was introduced to science in 1959 by a book entitled "The principles of humane experimental technique" by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. Various definitions of the terms exist by now. However, in general "Replace" refers to the replacement of animal experiments, "Reduce" to the reduction of the number of animals used in an experiment, and "Refine" to an improvement of the housing and experimental conditions for the animals.
The Einstein Foundation was established by the State of Berlin in 2009. The foundation's goal is to promote science and research in Berlin at the highest international level and to further Berlin as an attractive location for science and research in the long term. In addition to the income from the foundation's capital, the foundation also has access to funds from the state of Berlin. Funding projects are selected by an independent scientific commission of high-caliber experts.