What is the 3R principle?

The 3R principle - Replace, Reduce, Refine - was introduced to science in 1959 by a book entitled "The principles of humane experimental technique" by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. Various definitions of the terms exist by now. However, in general "Replace" refers to the replacement of animal experiments, "Reduce" to the reduction of the number of animals used in an experiment, and "Refine" to an improvement of the housing and experimental conditions for the animals.



  • EC3R Steering Committee confirms speaker

    The Steering Committee of the Einstein Centre 3R elected speakers and ombudspersons on 13 August. The previous spokespersons were confirmed in office.

  • General Assembly confirms Steering Committee

    The Einstein Center 3R General Assembly held elections for the Steering Committee on August 13. The previous members of the Steering Committee were confirmed in office.

  • Press release Einstein Foundation Berlin: Einstein Center for Alternative Methods in Biomedical Research commences work

    After twelve months of preparation, the new Einstein Center for Alternative Methods in Biomedical Research will officially be launched this week.

Funded by the Einstein Foundation Berlin

The Einstein Foundation was established by the State of Berlin in 2009. The foundation's goal is to promote science and research in Berlin at the highest international level and to further Berlin as an attractive location for science and research in the long term. In addition to the income from the foundation's capital, the foundation also has access to funds from the state of Berlin. Funding projects are selected by an independent scientific commission of high-caliber experts.