What is the 3R principle?

The 3R principle - Replace, Reduce, Refine - was introduced to science in 1959 by a book entitled "The principles of humane experimental technique" by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. Various definitions of the terms exist by now. However, in general "Replace" refers to the replacement of animal experiments, "Reduce" to the reduction of the number of animals used in an experiment, and "Refine" to an improvement of the housing and experimental conditions for the animals.



  • Long Night of the Sciences 22th of June 2024

    Researchers from the EC3R take part in the smartest night of the year and present various biomedical models and research approaches.

  • Interview | Jens Kurreck on Radio Eins

    "Replacement for animal testing - without any animal suffering?" This is the title of the six-minute interview that Radio Eins conducted with Prof. Dr. Jens Kurreck, co-spokesperson of EC3R, on May 25, 2024.

  • Interview | Jens Kurreck on Deutschlandfunk Kultur

    "A printed liver without animal suffering? That's possible!" This is the title of the five-minute interview that Deutschlandfunk Kultur conducted with Prof. Dr. Jens Kurreck, co-speaker of EC3R on 21 May 2024.

  • Invitation | Third Networking Event on Human 3D Organ Models on July 4th, 2024

    Charité 3R and the Einstein Center 3R invite you to the third Berlin Networking Event "Human 3D Organ Models" on July 4th at the Charité Mitte Campus.

  • Publication | "3D bioprinting of liver models: A systematic scoping review of methods, bioinks, and reporting quality"

    The systematic scoping review, published as a result of the fruitful collaboration between the EC3R partners, offers an overview and evaluation of the current state of research on bioprinted liver models.

  • FU, Veterinary Medicine: Job advertisement "Research assistant with 75% part-time employment"

    The FU Department of Veterinary Medicine invites applications for a 75% position E13 TVL. Fixed term until 30.12.2026.

    Application deadline: 08.04.2024

  • Insight into the EC3R lab | "Intestinal organoids"

    A new EC3R film is online! Watch it now and gain an exciting insight into the project of Prof Dr Sigal (Charité) investigating gastric and intestinal organoids.

  • Publication | "Xeno-Free 3D Bioprinted Liver Model for Hepatotoxicity Assessment"

    Ahmed Ali (PhD Student, Jens Kurreck Lab, TU Berlin) describes in his paper the successful development of a completely xeno-free 3D bioprinted liver model for toxicity research.

  • EC3R granted funding for a second term

    Following a successful interim evaluation, the Einstein Center 3R will be given a second term. This will start in July 2024.

  • Bf3R Statistics 2022 | Number of laboratory animals decreases again!

    The German Center for the Protection of Laboratory Animals (Bf3R) has published their annual laboratory animal statistics for indicating a further decline in the number of animals used in experiments.

  • MPS World Summit 2024 | Abstract submissions are now open!

    Submit your abstract for the Microphysiological Systems World Summit 2024 in Seattle, Washington, USA! The deadline for abstract submission is the 15.12.2023.

  • New 3R Initiative | WI3R invites you to their first symposium!

    The newly founded 3R initiative Würzburg (WI3R) invites you to their first symposium in June 2024, where the Ursula M. Händel Prize, endowed at € 80,000, will be awarded for outstanding 3R projects.

  • Interview | The TVV podcast discusses the topic if "reproducibility"

    Dr. rer. nat. Natascha Drude (BIH QUEST Center, Berlin) was a guest on the podcast of "Tierversuche Verstehen" and talked about reproducibility in research (in German).

  • Call | EC3R National and International Outgoing Lab Visit Program 2024

    Travel reimbursements of up to €3000 will be provided to enable Berlin graduates to visit national and international 3R laboratories of excellence.

  • Charité 3R Lecture | "Patient-derived Organoids"

    C3R cordially invites you to a lecture on 11.10.23 on patient-derived organoids presented by two outstanding experts in the field, Hugo Snippert (University Medical Utrecht) and Ulrich Keilholz (Charité)!

  • Registration now open! | 3R Online Seminar: "Alternatives to the use of animals in research and teaching"

    This 3R online seminar series gives insight into the wide range of scientific topics in the field of the 3Rs! It takes place within the framework of the BB3R in cooperation with EC3R & FU Berlin.

  • Event | "Einstein in the Dome - Deep Breath"

    The Stiftung Planetarium Berlin and the Einstein Foundation Berlin invite you to a spectacular interdisciplinary event on the 27.09.2023: Digital art meets lung research!

  • Call for Application | Ursula M. Händel Animal Welfare Prize 2023

    The DFG announces an animal welfare award, endowed with up to 80.000€! The award is intended for researchers who are particularly committed to the promotion of the 3Rs. Application deadline: 05 November 2023.

  • Call for Application | Oxford Berlin Autumn School 2023

    Applications are now open for the five-day autumn school on open and responsible research with lectures and a series of interactive workshops. Deadline: 31.08.2023!

  • Research Hub "Der Simulierte Mensch (Si-M)" invites you to their Si-Mposium 2023!

    Join the scientific lecture and networking event of the "Der Simulierte Mensch (Si-M)" on 01.09.2023 to learn more about the development and application of human models. Register now, it's for free!

  • 3R Design Thinking Course for Pupils

    ReThink3R, with the support of EC3R, offers the course "Rethinking Animal Experimentation and Alternative Methods" (16.-18.08.2023) as part of the FU Berlin SummerUNI. Register now!

  • Long Night of the Sciences

    The Long Night of the Sciences takes place on Saturday, June 17, 2023 in Berlin and Potsdam. Around 60 institutions will present themselves with over 1,000 program items. The EC3R provides films from the labs.

  • Lecture | Visiting Expert Prof. Dr. Außerlechner about 3D Bioprinting

    The EC3R and the Bioprinting Lab of the TU Berlin warmly invite you to a lecture of our Visiting Expert, Prof. Dr. Michael J. Außerlechner (Medical University Innsbruck) about 3D bioprinting on the 21.06.23.


  • Art Installation @LNDW2023 | "Animal-human relationships and health: an artistic exploration."

    Artist Sybille Neumeyer, in collaboration with Charité 3R for LNDW 2023, has developed a new perspective on the role of animals in medicine, searching for the three "R's" in the cultural fabric.

  • New Webinar Series | "Creating the right environment for animal care"

    A new webinar series from a cross-European group of 3Rs centres will explore the topic of culture of care. Expert speakers will cover putting a culture of care into practice in different. Register now for free!

  • Human 3D Tissue Models | Impressions from the Event

    We are very happy about the numerous participants & posters and the lively conversations!

  • Take a look! | "3Rs Training Webinar: Bioprinting" by Prof. Dr. Jens Kurreck

    The 3R webinar from 28.03.2023 on "Bioprinting of Organ Models for the Replacement of Animal Experiments" by Prof. Dr. Jens Kurreck (TU Berlin) is now online available in full length.

  • Course Offer | "Xeno-Free Cell Culture and Bioprinting" Workshop

    This free workshop, aimed at Master students, PhD students and early scientists, consists of a lecture series and a hands-on lab course. Registration is open from May 1st-15th!

  • Publication | "Kompass Tierversuche 2023" (engl.: "Animal Experiments Compass 2023")

    The initiative "Tierversuche verstehen" has published its annual report on the statistics on laboratory animal numbers in Germany 2023 - as always with clear graphics and additional information.

  • Call | 42nd Animal Welfare Research Award - Apply now!

    We are looking for research that contributes to replacing animal experiments or reducing the number of animals used. Apply now until 31.05.2023!

  • Networking Event | 3D Organ Models on the 09.05.2023

    Charité 3R and the Einstein Center 3R invite you to the second Berlin networking event "Human 3D Organ Models" on May 9, 2023 from 5 to 8 pm.

  • Panel Discussion | "Ways to reduce animal testing" (in German)

    On 24 April 2023, Berlin scientists will come together to discuss the question: "How can we quickly replace animal experiments with human-relevant methods? Be there! Please note: this event is held in German.

  • Call | Bf3R Research Funding

    Every two years, the German Centre for the Protection of Laboratory Animals (Bf3R) awards funds for scientific research projects in accordance with the 3R principle. Submission deadline: May, 31st 2023!

  • Call | NC3Rs International 3Rs Prize

    Have you published an outstanding paper with demonstrable impact on the 3Rs in the last three years? Then apply now for the annual NC3Rs Prize (deadline: 05.04.2023).

  • Call | EC3R national and international outgoing lab visit program

    Travel reimbursements of up to € 3.000 will be provided to enable Berlin graduates to visit national and international 3R laboratories of excellence.

Funded by the Einstein Foundation Berlin

The Einstein Foundation was established by the State of Berlin in 2009. The foundation's goal is to promote science and research in Berlin at the highest international level and to further Berlin as an attractive location for science and research in the long term. In addition to the income from the foundation's capital, the foundation also has access to funds from the state of Berlin. Funding projects are selected by an independent scientific commission of high-caliber experts.