What is the 3R principle?

The 3R principle - Replace, Reduce, Refine - was introduced to science in 1959 by a book entitled "The principles of humane experimental technique" by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. Various definitions of the terms exist by now. However, in general "Replace" refers to the replacement of animal experiments, "Reduce" to the reduction of the number of animals used in an experiment, and "Refine" to an improvement of the housing and experimental conditions for the animals.



  • Networking Event | 3D Organ Models on the 09.05.2023

    Charité 3R and the Einstein Center 3R invite you to the second Berlin networking event "Human 3D Organ Models" on May 9, 2023 from 5 to 8 pm.

  • Panel Discussion | "Ways to reduce animal testing" (in German)

    On 24 April 2023, Berlin scientists will come together to discuss the question: "How can we quickly replace animal experiments with human-relevant methods? Be there! Please note: this event is held in German.

  • BIONNALE Event | "Lab-on-the-Chip and 3R"

    At the BIONNALE on 16.05.2023, Jens Kurreck (EC3R, TU Berlin) and Reyk Horland (TissUse GmbH) will talk about the transferability, reduction or even replacement of animal experiments in research.

  • Call | Bf3R Research Funding

    Every two years, the German Centre for the Protection of Laboratory Animals (Bf3R) awards funds for scientific research projects in accordance with the 3R principle. Submission deadline: May, 31st 2023!

  • Call | NC3Rs International 3Rs Prize

    Have you published an outstanding paper with demonstrable impact on the 3Rs in the last three years? Then apply now for the annual NC3Rs Prize (deadline: 05.04.2023).

  • Elephants & Butterflies | Cellular Fuel Cells

    Philipp Mergenthaler is looking for biochemical mechanisms that prevent cell death in stroke patients and people with rare mitochondrial diseases.

  • Call | EC3R national and international outgoing lab visit program

    Travel reimbursements of up to € 3.000 will be provided to enable Berlin graduates to visit national and international 3R laboratories of excellence.

Funded by the Einstein Foundation Berlin

The Einstein Foundation was established by the State of Berlin in 2009. The foundation's goal is to promote science and research in Berlin at the highest international level and to further Berlin as an attractive location for science and research in the long term. In addition to the income from the foundation's capital, the foundation also has access to funds from the state of Berlin. Funding projects are selected by an independent scientific commission of high-caliber experts.