What is the 3R principle?

The 3R principle - Replace, Reduce, Refine - was introduced to science in 1959 by a book entitled "The principles of humane experimental technique" by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. Various definitions of the terms exist by now. However, in general "Replace" refers to the replacement of animal experiments, "Reduce" to the reduction of the number of animals used in an experiment, and "Refine" to an improvement of the housing and experimental conditions for the animals.

 


News

  • Save the Date | 3R Online Seminar: "Alternatives to animal use in research and education - Refine, Reduce & Replace"

    Within a period of eight weeks, seventeen excellent scientists will give a wide-ranging overview of the broad spectrum of topics in the field of the 3Rs. Starts on October 20th, 2022.

  • Inclusion of new members

    The Einstein Center 3R would like to expand its networking and offers an associate membership.

  • EC3R Visting Experts

    Interested project groups from within the EC3R can apply to invite an international expert whose expertise can further promote 3R research of excellence in Berlin.

  • Call | EC3R national and international outgoing lab visit program

    Travel reimbursements of up to € 3.000 will be provided to enable Berlin graduates to visit national and international 3R laboratories of excellence.

  • Current figures - animal experiments in the federal states

    As in previous years, the initiative Tierversuche verstehen has analyzed the numbers of animals used in experiments in the individual German federal states (in German).



Funded by the Einstein Foundation Berlin

The Einstein Foundation was established by the State of Berlin in 2009. The foundation's goal is to promote science and research in Berlin at the highest international level and to further Berlin as an attractive location for science and research in the long term. In addition to the income from the foundation's capital, the foundation also has access to funds from the state of Berlin. Funding projects are selected by an independent scientific commission of high-caliber experts.