*The 3R Principle
The 3R principle - Replace, Reduce, Refine - was introduced into science in 1959 by a book entitled “The principles of humane experimental technique” by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. Therein, the authors defined:
- Replacement means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material.
- Reduction means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount and precision.
- Refinement means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used.
- Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Charité)
- Freie Universität Berlin (FU Berlin)
- Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (HU Berlin)
- Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin)
- Berlin Institute of Health (BIH)
- Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR)
- Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC)
- Robert Koch Institute (RKI)
Michael Beekes (RKI)
Michael Brecht (HU Berlin)
Ulrich Dirnagl (BIH)
Michael Gotthardt (MDC)
Stefan Hippenstiel (Charité)
Andreas Hocke (Charité)
Jens Kurreck (TU Berlin)
Tanja Schwerdtle (BfR)
Christa Thöne-Reineke (FU Berlin)
Coordinators & Speakers
Three Coordinators are nominated to specifically develop the activities of the Collaborative Research Network (Hippenstiel), Education and Training (Thöne-Reineke) and Communication and Outreach (Kurreck).
For the external representation of the center and leadership of the Steering Committee, Hippenstiel and Thöne-Reineke are designated as Speaker and Co-Speaker of the center.
Einstein Foundation Berlin
The Einstein Foundation was founded in 2009 by the State of Berlin. The goal of the foundation is to promote science and research in Berlin at the highest international level and to establish the state as an attractive location for science and research in the long term. In addition to the proceeds from the foundation's capital, the foundation also has access to funds from the state of Berlin. Funding projects are selected by an independent scientific commission of top-class experts.
For more information please visit: www.einsteinfoundation.de